地质年代

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地质年代,又称为地质时期地质时间,是用来描述地球历史事件的时间单位,通常在地质学考古学中使用。依地球历史发生的重要地质事件作分界,将其划为若干阶段而制作的标度,称作地质年代表

术语

地球历史的螺旋形图形表示

地质年代共分为六个时间单位,从大到小依次是宙/元(eon)代(era)纪(period)世(epoch)期(age)时 (chron)。 它们分别与年代地层学中表示岩层年龄单位的宇、界、系、统、阶、带相对应。 


地质年代学地层学单位
年代地层学
岩段(地层
地质年代学
时间间隔
说明
共有4个,大于5亿年
共有14个,数亿年
共有22个,数千万至数亿年
共有34个,数千万年
共有99个,数百万年
小于期,国际地层委员会(ICS)不使用
规范用法:恐龙生活在侏罗纪(时间),恐龙化石在侏罗系地层中找到。上、下修饰年代地层单位。早、晚修饰地质年代单位。(例:下白垩统对应早白垩世)

表中各个宙/元、代、纪、世、期或时都有自己的名称,用于描述生物在不同地质时空的发展程度,一般以首先研究它们时期岩石的地点来命名。名称的词源概述于下。

宙/元

古生代

中生代

  • 三叠纪(Triassic) : 来自拉丁文"三"(Trias),因为最初发现的地层明显分为三层。
  • 侏罗纪(Jurassic) : 取名于法国与瑞士之间的汝拉山(Jura Mountain,又翻译作侏罗山)。
  • 白垩纪(Cretaceous) : 取自拉丁文Creta,意指白垩

新生代

  • 第三纪(Tertiary) : 第三个衍生物。目前第三纪已经撤销。原来的第三纪现在分为古近纪新近纪
  • 第四纪(Quaternary) : 第四个衍生物。

早期地质年代分为第一纪第二纪第三纪第四纪四个时期。第四纪是人类存在的纪;第三纪是哺乳动物出现的纪;第二纪是爬虫类动物时代,第一纪包括爬行动物出现以前时代。后来经过详细划分,将第一纪和第二纪分成更细的层次,所以在19世纪时就取消了第一纪第二纪这两个名称。

对于前寒武纪时期的不同命名

在2004年,国际地质科学联合会确定前寒武纪的地质年代之前,中国学者已经用中国的地质状况对前寒武纪地质年代给予命名,这些命名至今仍经常出现在中国学者的著作以及中国的教科书中。

地质年代参照表


地质年代比例

全部

如果把地球诞生到现在的大约45亿年缩小到1年,则人类(Homo sapiens)存在的时间只有极短的半个小时。





前寒武纪 n/a




冥古宙 太古宙 元古宙 显生宙
古生代
1月 2月 3月 4月 5月 6月 7月 8月 9月 10月 11月 12月

显生宙

把显生宙放大:





古生代 中生代 新生代




寒武纪 奥陶纪 志留纪 泥盆纪 密西西比纪 宾夕法尼亚纪 二叠纪 三叠纪 侏罗纪 白垩纪 古近纪 新近纪
11月中旬 30 12/1 5 10 15 20 12/31

新生代

把新生代再放大:





古近纪 新近纪




古新世 始新世 渐新世 中新世
0:00 2:00 4:00 6:00 8:00 10:00 12:00 14:00 16:00 18:00 20:00 24:00


参考文献

  1. ^ Paleontologists often refer to faunal stage英语faunal stages rather than geologic (geological) periods. The stage nomenclature is quite complex. For an excellent time-ordered list of faunal stages, see The Paleobiology Database. [2006-03-19]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Dates are slightly uncertain with differences of a few percent between various sources being common. This is largely due to uncertainties in radiometric dating and the problem that deposits suitable for radiometric dating seldom occur exactly at the places in the geologic column where they would be most useful. The dates and errors quoted above are according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy 2004 time scale. Dates labeled with a * indicate boundaries where a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point has been internationally agreed upon: see List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points英语List of Global Boundary Stratotype Sections and Points for a complete list.
  3. ^ References to the "Post-Cambrian Supereon" are not universally accepted, and therefore must be considered unofficial.
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Historically, the 新生代 has been divided up into the 第四纪 and 第三纪 sub-eras, as well as the 新近纪 and 古近纪 periods. The 2009 version of the ICS time chart recognizes a slightly extended Quaternary as well as the Paleogene and a truncated Neogene, the Tertiary having been demoted to informal status.
  5. ^ 王瑜 成星:“国际地层委员会更新国际年代地层表 4200年前地球进入新的地质时期——梅加拉亚期”,《中国自然资源报》 发布时间:2018-08-01
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 For more information on this, see the following articles: Earth's atmosphere, 二氧化碳, Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere英语Carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere, global warming, 气候变迁, Image:Phanerozoic_Carbon_Dioxide.png, Image:65 Myr Climate Change.png, Image:Five Myr Climate Change.png, and Template:DF temperature
  7. ^ The start time for the Holocene epoch is here given as 11,700 years ago. For further discussion of the dating of this epoch, see Holocene.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 In North America, the Carboniferous is subdivided into Mississippian英语Mississippian and Pennsylvanian英语Pennsylvanian Periods.
  9. ^ 9.0 9.1 上石炭纪地质在欧美及中国均以盛产煤炭著名,因此便以石炭纪为此时代地层的名称,但在美国则以密士西必纪作为下石炭纪,另以宾夕法尼亚纪称上部石炭纪。[1]
  10. ^ The Precambrian is also known as Cryptozoic.
  11. ^ 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 11.13 The Proterozoic, Archean and Hadean are often collectively referred to as the Precambrian Time or sometimes, also the Cryptozoic.
  12. ^ 12.00 12.01 12.02 12.03 12.04 12.05 12.06 12.07 12.08 12.09 12.10 12.11 Defined by absolute age (Global Standard Stratigraphic Age英语Global Standard Stratigraphic Age).
  13. ^ The age of the oldest measurable craton, or continental crust, is dated to 3600–3800 Ma
  14. ^ Though commonly used, the Hadean is not a formal eon and no lower bound for the Archean and Eoarchean have been agreed upon. The Hadean has also sometimes been called the Priscoan or the Azoic. Sometimes, the Hadean can be found to be subdivided according to the lunar geologic time scale. These eras include the Cryptic and Basin Groups (which are subdivisions of the Pre-Nectarian era), Nectarian, and Early Imbrian英语Early Imbrian units.
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 These unit names were taken from the Lunar geologic timescale and refer to geologic events that did not occur on Earth. Their use for Earth geology is unofficial.
  16. ^ Bowring, Samuel A.; Williams, Ian S. Priscoan (4.00–4.03 Ga) orthogneisses from northwestern Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 1999, 134 (1): 3. Bibcode:1999CoMP..134....3B. doi:10.1007/s004100050465.  The oldest rock on Earth is the Acasta Gneiss英语Acasta Gneiss, and it dates to 4.03 Ga, located in the Northwest Territories of Canada.
  17. ^ Geology.wisc.edu

外部链接

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